enormous pressure applied by the globalization process on the
enterprises of all types and dimensions imposes continuous revisions
of their growth (or merely survival) strategies. The areas more
directly affected by the new ways of making industry are:
TRESAURY that is compelled, more
and more every day, to seek for new forms of mid-term financing
(as venture capitals, stock market, etc.) and, when possible,
facilitated credits and contributions or grants.
that, in order to maintain the actual and perspective competitiveness
of the enterprise, must be involved in the acquisition of
control shares, merge of companies, majority joint
venture or adopt different growth strategies by external lines
activating commercial agreements, products integration,
co-operation in R & D programs, etc.
that, due to the acceleration of the innovation (technology,
process and product), must establish permanent links with
external research structures and cannot be just satisfied
by incremental innovations or imitative techniques like, in example,
(Operation): the increasing use of outsourcing revolutionizes
the operation of the enterprise, shifting from the traditional
structures to models known as "network companies"
or "horizontal structures" with deep changes
not only in the productive apparatus but also in product marketing,
adoption of new components, technological research,
new forms of access to capitals, utilization of new
of services, etc.
economic, technological changes happened in the last decade have
deeply changed the operation of the Italian enterprises. Words
like globalization and internationalization have become
common terms that are used to describe the historical trend toward
the economic unification of the world.
The inedited character of globalization, as
we feel it today and as it will be still more obvious in the
years to come, is determined by the interaction of four main
- increased liberalization of the markets in which the
products - services are offered
- growth of direct and portfolio investments
- increased pace of technological and product innovation
- development of Information Technology, that has shattered
the costs of long distance communication.
The above has
determined an increased competition among enterprises,
not only in new markets, but also in the traditional ones (local,
regional and national) and this in turn has increased the transparency
and permeability of the markets to new entries.
To increase the economy of
scale (with the acquisition
of new market shares) is a necessity determined by a wider
international offer of production factors, the shortening
of the products life cycle and the strong increase of
Research and Development costs.